3d试机号走势图365:【新概念英语四】第8课 :贸易标准

2012-07-25 14:33:33   Tag:



【新概念英语四】第8课 :贸易标准 :First listen and then answer the following question. 听录音,然后回答以下问题。 What makes trading between rich countries difficult?

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【新概念英语四】第8课 Trading standards 贸易标准 

First listen and then answer the following question.

What makes trading between rich countries difficult?

Chickens slaughtered in the United States, claim officials in Brussels, are not fit to grace European tables. No, say the American: our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way. These days, it is differences in national regulations, far more than tariffs, that put sand in the wheels of trade between rich countries. It is not just farmers who are complaining. An electric razor that meets the European Union's safety standards must be approved by American testers before it can be sold in the United States, and an American-made dialysis machine needs the EU's okay before is hits the market in Europe.

As it happens, a razor that is safe in Europe is unlikely to electrocute Americans. So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do? Politicians agree, in principle, so America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal which would eliminate the need to double-test many products. They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28th. Although negotiators are optimistic, the details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all.

Why? One difficulty is to construct the agreements. The Americans would happily reach one accord on standards for medical devices and then hammer out different pacts covering, say, electronic goods and drug manufacturing. The EU -- following fine continental traditions -- wants agreement on general principles, which could be applied to many types of products and perhaps extended to other countries.
From: The Economist, May 24th, 1997

【New words and expressions 生词和短语】
slaughter v. 屠宰
fit adj. 适合
grace v. 给...增光
tariff n. 关税
standard n. 标准
dialysis n. 分离,分解;透析,渗析
electrocute v. 使触电身亡
eliminate v. 消灭
accord n. 协议
device n. 仪器,器械
hammer out v. 推敲
pact n. 合同,条约,公约

1.Chickens slaughtered in...to grace European tables.在这句话中引用了布鲁塞尔官员的评论,却没有放在引号之中。这种方式常用语报刊文章,对读者的直接影响更大。在claim officials in Brussels中,动词claim置于名词前。

例句:Thousands were slaughtered by the invading army.

例句:The total slaughter of the home team disappointed all fans.

3.it is differences in national regulations...between rich countries,是各国管理条例上的差异,而不是关税阻碍了发达国家之间的贸易。
这是一个it引导的强调句。强调句句型:It is...that...(强调人或事物)/ It is...who...(强调人)。在通常情况下,去掉这个句型,句子依然是成立的——这是判断一个句子是否为强调结构的重要标志。

例句:It was my mother who finally called the police.

去掉强调结构:My mother finally called the police.意思没有变,只是语气减弱了。

4.put/throw sand in the wheels of,阻碍,阻挠。
例句:The terrorist attack put sand in the wheels of the ongoing peace talk.

5.So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do? 这是另一个没有引号的直接引语的例子。注意why have two...do中的语序,这是非??谟锘闹苯右锏挠镄?。

If you will be hard-pressed to do something, you will have great difficulty doing it.做某事很困难。
例句:This year the airline will be hard-pressed to make a profit.

7.apply to,适用于、应用于。
例句:The laws apply to everyone irrespective of race, creed or colour.
法律适用于所有的人,不分种族、 信仰或肤色。

apply for,申请。
例句:Don't apply for that job: you're in danger of overreaching yourself.

8.extend to,拓展至、延伸至,可表示空间、时间、范围、领域上的延伸。
例句:It might be possible to extend the technique to other crop plants.


碰巧在欧洲使用安全的剃须刀不大可能使美国人触电身亡,因此,大西洋两岸的企业都在问,当一套测试可以解决问题时,为什么需要两套呢?政治家在原则上同意了, 因此,美国和欧洲一直在寻求达成协议,以便为许多产品取消双重检查。他们希望尽早达成协议,为5月28日举行的美国和欧洲贸易的最高通级会议作准备。然谈判代表持乐观态度,但协议细节如此复杂,他们所面临的困难很可能使他们无法取得一致。

为什么呢?困难之一是起草这些协议。美国人很愿意就医疗器械的标准达成一个协议,然后推敲出不同的合同,用以涵盖 -- 比如说 -- 电子产品和药品的生产。欧洲人遵循优良的大陆传统,则希望就普遍的原则取得一致,而这些原则适用于许多不同产品,同时可能延伸到其它国家。

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